Most part of manipulative news published in online editions in Poltava and Dnipro
Most of the manipulative news have been published in online editions in Dnipro and Poltava. At the same time, the online editions in Mykolaiv and Dnipro have been most often spreading fake news. And the most common manipulations were jeansa, judgments or assessments that were presented as facts, as well as under-reporting. Doubtful or anonymous sources have been most often used in fake news. These are the results of a research study by the NGO "Institute of Mass Information", which was conducted in 10 regions of Ukraine in January this year. *
According to the IMI monityoring study, a total of 210 manipulated news and 11 fake news were recorded in the regional online media. The most part of manipulated news was published in the online media in Dnipro (7.5% of the total number of news in mass media of the region) and Poltava (5.5% of news). The least number of manipulative news was recorded in Odessa regional media (0.7% of the total number of news in the region). At the same time, most of the news with fake information was recorded in the news in Mykolaiv (0.7% of the total number of publications) and Dnipro (0.4% of publications) online media. There was no fake news came out in the online media in Volyn, Donetsk (the unoccupied part), Odessa, Kharkiv and Cherkasy.
According to the monitoring results, the most common types of manipulation in the news were jeansa (43% of the total number of manipulations), judgments, assessments presented as facts (20%), and incomplete information (19% of the total number of manipulative publications). Exaggeration / diminishment of real phenomena accounted for 9% of the total number of manipulations, the headline did not correspond to the content of the text in 7% of news with manipulations, pseudo-experts or biased experts appeared in 4% of manipulative news. The least manipulations they used were the news with background, which did not correspond to the essence of the news, and the use of memes to denote the phenomena involved in political processes (0.5% of the total number of manipulated news).
In the regions, jeansa appeared most often in the online media in Cherkasy (100% of the total number of manipulations in the news), judgments and assessments were presented as facts in the Kherson online media (62.5% of the total number of manipulated news in the region). Fragmented, incomplete information in the news was most often published in the online media of Poltava (44% of the total number of news with manipulations), exaggerated or diminished real phenomena in the news of Volyn online media (31%). Also most often they used pseudo-experts or biased experts of online media in Kharkiv (15%), the news items with a background that did not correspond to the essence of the news, was seen most often in the publications online media in Lviv (5%), they used memes in online media in Kharkiv (5% of the total news from manipulations in the region).
In the fake news most frequently they used contraversial or anonymous sources (82% of the total number of fake news), untrue facts, and untrue counter-propaganda (9% of the total number of fake news). At the same time, most often dubious or anonymous sources were cited in fake news in the online media in Mykolayiv (100% of the total number of fake news in the region), facts that did not correspond to reality were presented in the online media in Dnipro (33%), and counter-propaganda did not correspond to reality appeared in Poltava online media (50% of the total number of fake news in the region). The top topics in the fake news were: coronavirus (45% of total fake news), entertainment (27%), politics (18%) and city infrastructure (9% of total fake news).
* The study analyzed 8720 news, including 210 publications with manipulations and 11 news with fake information in 50 regional online media in 10 regions of Ukraine (Volyn, Dnipro, Donetsk (Mariupol, Slavyansk), Lviv, Mykolaiv, Odessa, Poltava, Kharkiv, Kherson, Cherkasy) from 11 to 15 January 2021 inclusive. The monitoring included only news from the online media newswire: articles, journalistic investigations, analytics, blogs, op-eds, upcoming events announcements, etc. were not analyzed.
Methodology of the monitoring included analysis of the number of publications that contained manipulations and fake news, as well as the most common elements of manipulation in the news; judgments / assessments are presented as fact; information contained exaggeration / understatement of reality; only part of the information (half-truth) was presented to influence the opinion of the audience, the header did not correspond to the content of the text; the background in the materials contained some manipulation, did not correspond to the essence of the news; memes to denote phenomena, participants in political processes; representing only one side) and signs of fakes, false information, untrue facts, information based on dubious or anonymous sources that could not be verified; distorted or unreliable sociological research; smear campaign about candidates / parties that did not correspond to reality; information was presented as an expert's opinion (biolaboratory); fake news and manipulations aimed against national security, the goal was to overthrow the constitutional order in Ukraine, etc .; Russian propaganda).
Monitoring was conducted in the following media:
VOLYN (Volyn News, VolynPost, Volyn24, Rayon.in.ua, Pod Prytsilom), DNIPRO (Vidkryty, 056, Dniprovska Panorama, Informator, gorod.dp.ua), DONETSK (MARIUPOL) (0629, Novyny Donbassu, Karachun (Slovyansk), Avdeevka.city, MRPL.CITY), LVIV (Lvivsky portal, Zakhid.net, Vgolos, Varta1, Tvoye misto), MYKOLAYIV (Prestupnosti.net, Moy Horod, Novosti-N, InsheTV,Varta 1, Tvoe Misto), ODESSA (Dumska, 048, Оdesskaya zhyzn, USI.Оdessa, Odessa online), POLTAVA (Poltavshchyna, poltavske.tv, OKIA Poltava region news, 0532.ua, Zmist), KHARKIV (ATN, Status Quo, Horod X, KHARKIV Today, 057 .ua), KHERSON (KhersonOnline, My Kherson, Lubimiy Kherson, Khersonshchyna za den, Khersontsi), CHERKASY (Vycherpno, 18000, Procherk, Zmi.ck.ua, Provse).